People Kanekes or Bedouin / Beduin is an indigenous group of Sunda in the Lebak regency, Banten. Their population is around 5,000 to 8,000 people, and they are one of the tribes who apply isolation from the outside world. In addition, they also have the confidence taboo to be photographed.
The term "Bedouin" is the designation given by residents outside the community groups, the researchers started from the title Dutch who apparently equate them with the Arab Badawi who is sedentary societies (nomadic). Another possibility is that the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or "Kanekes" corresponds to the name of their territory, or a term that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (gärna, 1993)
Kanekes territory is geographically located at coordinates 6 ° 27'27 "- 6 ° 30'0" latitude and 108 ° 3'9 "- 106 ° 4'55" E (Permana, 2001). They live right on the foot of the mountains Kendeng Kanekes village, District Leuwidamar,-Rangkasbitung Lebak, Banten, is about 40 km from the city Rangkasbitung. The area is part of Kendeng Mountains with an altitude of 300-600 m above sea level (DPL) has the hilly and undulating topography with an average slope reaches 45%, which is a volcanic soil (in the north), soil sediment (in the middle), and soil mixture (in the south). average temperature of 20 ° C. Three main village is the Kanekes In Cikeusik , Cikertawana , and Cibeo .
Language they use is Sundanese Sundanese dialect-Banten. To communicate with people outside of their current use Indonesian language, although they do not get that knowledge from school. People do not know the culture Kanekes in writing, so that the customs, beliefs / religion, and ancestor stories stored only in oral speech only.
People do not know Kanekes school, because formal education as opposed to their customs. They rejected the government's proposal to build school facilities in their villages. Even to this day, although since the Suharto government has tried to force them to change the way hidupmereka and build modern school facilities in their area, people still resist efforts Kanekes government. As a result, the majority of people Kanekes can not read or write draw.
People Kanekes still has historic links with the Sundanese . Physical appearance and their language is similar to Sundanese people in general. The only difference is their beliefs and way of life. People Kanekes shut yourself from the outside world and strictly maintain their traditional way of life, while the Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and the majority embraced Islam.
Kanekes Community are generally divided into three groups: Tangtu, panamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001).
Tangtu group is a group known as Kanekes In (the Bedouin), the most closely followed the customs, the people living in the three villages: Cibeo, Cikertawana, and Cikeusik. Characteristic Kanekes People are dressed in natural white and dark blue and wearing a white headband. They were forbidden by custom to meet with foreigners (non-citizen)
Kanekes In a part of the whole person Kanekes. Unlike Kanekes Outside, residents Kanekes In still adhere to customs of their ancestors.
Most of the rules adopted by the tribe Kanekes include:
- Not allowed to use vehicles for transportation
- Not allowed to use footwear
- The door should face north / south (except home the Pu'un or traditional leaders)
- Prohibition of use of electronic tools (technology)
- Using cloth black / white as the clothes are woven and sewn himself, and is not allowed to use modern clothing.
The second community group called panamping are those known as Kanekes Solo (Solo Bedouin), who lived in various villages scattered around the region Kanekes In as Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Community Kanekes Foreign distinctively dressed and black headband.
Foreign Kanekes are the people who have come out of peoples and regions Kanekes In. There are several things that cause the release of citizens to Kanekes Kanekes In Outer:
- They have violated the indigenous communities Kanekes.
- Wanting to get out of Kanekes In
- Married with members of the Foreign Kanekes
The characteristics of the people Kanekes Foreign
- They have to know the technology, such as electronic equipment, although its use remains a ban for every citizen Kanekes, including Foreign Kanekes citizens. They use the equipment in a way secretly to escape detection from Kanekes the supervisor.
- The process of construction of houses Kanekes Foreign been using these tools, such as saws, hammers, nails, etc., that were previously prohibited by customary Kanekes In.
- Using traditional clothes with black or dark blue (for men), which indicates that they are not holy. Sometimes using modern clothes such as T-shirts and jeans.
- Using modern household appliances, such as mattresses, pillows, plates & cups glass & plastic.
- They live outside the Kanekes In.
If Kanekes Domestic and Foreign Kanekes Kanekes living in the area, the "Kanekes Dangka" Kanekes live outside the area, and currently resides in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Dangka village serves as a sort of buffer zone on outside influences (Permana, 2001). - 188.8.131.52 12 September 2012 07:40 (UTC) - 184.108.40.206 12 September 2012 07:40 (UTC) - 220.127.116.11 12 September 2012 07:40 (UTC)
According to the beliefs that they profess, people claiming descent from Batara Kanekes Ancestor, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including the citizen has a duty Kanekes be imprisoned or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world.
Opinions about the origin of the different Kanekes opinion among the historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, travel records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, and folklore about the 'Tatar Sunda' fairly minimal existence. Community Kanekes associated with the Kingdom of Sunda that before its collapse in the 16th century centered on Pakuan Pajajaran (around Bogor now). Before the establishment of the Sultanate of Banten, west end area of the island of Java is an important part of the Kingdom of Sunda. Banten is a fairly large trading port. Ciujung rivers are navigable various types of boats, and crowded is used to transport agricultural products from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, known as Prince shoots General considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. For that diperintahkanlah royal army of highly trained soldiers to maintain and manage the heavily wooded and hilly areas in the region of Mount Kendeng. The existence of a special task force with the Society seems to be the forerunner Kanekes that still inhabit the upper river at Mount Kendeng Ciujung the (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion are led to conjecture that in the past, their historical identity and accidentally closed, which probably is to protect the community from attacks Kanekes themselves Pajajaran enemies.
Van Tricht, a physician who had conducted health research in 1928, refuting the theory. According to him, the Kanekes is a native of the area who has a strong thrust towards external influences (gärna, 1993b: 146). People Kanekes himself had refused to say that they are from the people escape from Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According Danasasmita and Djatisunda (1986: 4-5) is a Bedouin locals who made the mandala '(sacred area) formally by the king, because the population is obliged to raise kabuyutan (place of ancestor worship or ancestor), rather than Hinduism or Buddhism. Principal in this area known as the Sunda kabuyutan Teak or 'Sunda Original' or Sunda Wiwitan (wiwitan = original, origin, principal, teak). Therefore, their original religion was given the name Sunda Wiwitan. King makes a mandala is Bedouin territory Rakeyan Darmasiksa .
Interaksi dengan masyarakat luar
Masyarakat Kanekes yang sampai sekarang ini ketat mengikuti adat-istiadat bukan merupakan masyarakat terasing, terpencil, ataupun masyarakat yang terisolasi dari perkembangan dunia luar. Berdirinya Kesultanan Banten yang secara otomatis memasukkan Kanekes ke dalam wilayah kekuasaannya pun tidak lepas dari kesadaran mereka. Sebagai tanda kepatuhan/pengakuan kepada penguasa, masyarakat Kanekes secara rutin melaksanakan seba ke Kesultanan Banten (Garna, 1993). Sampai sekarang, upacara seba tersebut terus dilangsungkan setahun sekali, berupa menghantar hasil bumi (padi, palawija, buah-buahan) kepada Gubernur Banten (sebelumnya ke Gubernur Jawa Barat), melalui bupati Kabupaten Lebak. Di bidang pertanian, penduduk Kanekes Luar berinteraksi erat dengan masyarakat luar, misalnya dalam sewa-menyewa tanah, dan tenaga buruh.
Perdagangan yang pada waktu yang lampau dilakukan secara barter, sekarang ini telah mempergunakan mata uang rupiah biasa. Orang Kanekes menjual hasil buah-buahan, madu, dan gula kawung/aren melalui para tengkulak. Mereka juga membeli kebutuhan hidup yang tidak diproduksi sendiri di pasar. Pasar bagi orang Kanekes terletak di luar wilayah Kanekes seperti pasar Kroya, Cibengkung, dan Ciboleger.
Pada saat ini orang luar yang mengunjungi wilayah Kanekes semakin meningkat sampai dengan ratusan orang per kali kunjungan, biasanya merupakan remaja dari sekolah, mahasiswa, dan juga para pengunjung dewasa lainnya. Mereka menerima para pengunjung tersebut, bahkan untuk menginap satu malam, dengan ketentuan bahwa pengunjung menuruti adat-istiadat yang berlaku di sana. Aturan adat tersebut antara lain tidak boleh berfoto di wilayah Kanekes Dalam, tidak menggunakan sabun atau odol di sungai. Namun demikian, wilayah Kanekes tetap terlarang bagi orang asing (non-WNI). Beberapa wartawan asing yang mencoba masuk sampai sekarang selalu ditolak masuk.
Pada saat pekerjaan di ladang tidak terlalu banyak, orang Kanekes juga senang berkelana ke kota besar sekitar wilayah mereka dengan syarat harus berjalan kaki. Pada umumnya mereka pergi dalam rombongan kecil yang terdiri dari 3 sampai 5 orang, berkunjung ke rumah kenalan yang pernah datang ke Kanekes sambil menjual madu dan hasil kerajinan tangan. Dalam kunjungan tersebut biasanya mereka mendapatkan tambahan uang untuk mencukupi kebutuhan hidup.