Banjar tribe ( Banjar language : Urang Banjar / اورڠ بنجر) or Oloh Still is ethnic or ethnoreligious Muslims who occupy most of the province of South Kalimantan , and since the 17th century began occupies most of Central Kalimantan and part of East Kalimantan , especially the plains and the lower reaches of the watershed (DAS) in the region. The interest Banjar Banjar sometimes also called Malay, but the naming of the rare is used.
Ethnic groups from the Banjar Banjar area of the watershed that is a blend Bahau (correction: Material DAS / DAS State), Das Barito, DAS and the DAS Tabanio Martapura. of the Barito River downstream of central interest is the Banjar. The emergence of Banjar tribe not only as a concept but also the concept of ethnic political, sociological, and religious. In linguistic, ethnic Banjar language used is a combination of language families Malayic and Barito Kingdom .
Since the 19th century, Banjar tribe began migrating to many parts of the Malay Archipelago and established residential enclaves there.
In linguistic Banjar tribe allied with Kendayan Dayak (Dayak dialect: Kanayatn), Dayak Iban and Malay Local (including Dayak Meratus) which Malayic language family . Mythology Dayak tribe Meratus (Bukit Dayak) states that the tribe Banjar (especially Banjar Pahuluan) and hill tribe descended from two brothers, namely Si Ayuh (Sandayuhan) a lower interest Bambang Basiwara Hill and the lower interest Banjar. In the realm of narrative prose folk legends speak Dayak Meratus found in nature to admit or even legalize keserumpunan genetics (both geneologis are related to each other) between the Banjar with Meratus Dayak people. In the prose tale folk Meratus Dayak language is revealed that the ancestors of the Banjar named Bambang Basiwara is the younger brother of the Dayak ancestors Meratus named Sandayuhan. Bambang Basiwara sister berfisik described as weak but smart brains. While Sandayuhan brother described as a strong berfisik bruiser. In keeping with its status as the ancestors or the forerunner of the Dayak Maratus, hence the name Sandayuhan very popular among the Dayak Meratus. There are so many places around the mountains Meratus the historical existence of the origin recounted heroic action Sandayuhan. One of them is the seven-headed rock cliff, supposedly the embodiment of Samali'ing, the seven-headed demon who successfully defeated in a physical contact is crucial. The Banjar is a Dayak descent who had converted to Islam and then adopted the culture of Java, Malay, Bugis and China.
According to Denys Lombard, in ancient times most of the population of South Kalimantan (especially the Batang Banyu) are the descendants of immigrants from Java. Another opinion states, Banjar tribe traces its roots from Sumatra over 1500 years ago.] Djoko Pramono states that comes from the Banjar tribe tribe Sea People who settled in South Kalimantan.
Ethnic groups Banjar allegedly originated from the population from Sumatra or the surrounding areas, who built the country 's new Land Banjar (now the province of South Kalimantan) about more than a thousand years ago. Having passed a long time to finally, after mixing with the population-more original, are sometimes referred to as a tribe Dayak , and the immigrants who came later-formed at least three subsuku, namely (Banjar) Pahuluan, (Banjar) Trunk Banyu, and Banjar (Kuala).
Pahuluan Banjar area residents in principle adalalah river valleys (branch rivers State) are tipped to Meratus mountains . Trunk Banjar valley Banyu inhabit rivers state , while the Banjar Kuala inhabit around Banjarmasin and Martapura . They developed language called Banjar language , which in principle is the language of the Malay Sumatra or surroundings, in which there is a lot of vocabulary native Dayak and Javanese . Banjar name because they were first acquired (before the Banjar empire was abolished in 1860 ) are citizens of the Sultanate of Banjarmasin or abbreviated Banjar, according to the name of the founding of its capital. When the capital was moved inland (last Martapura ), the name appears to have changed or no longer standard.
Since the 19th century, Banjar tribe migrated to the east coast of Sumatra and Malaysia , but in West Malaysia, the tribe Banjar classified into ethnic Malays, just in Tawau ( Sabah , East Malaysia) who still call diriya Banjar tribe. In Singapore , Banjar tribe had melted into Malay. Census 1930 , shows the number of terms Banjar outside South Kalimantan, but the 2000 census visible number has decreased.
Sultanate of Banjar before covering the province of South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan as today, then in the 16th century in the west divided into kingdoms Kotawaringin led by Prince Sultan bin Dipati Anta Kasuma Mustain Billah and in the 17th century on the east into the kingdom of the Land Seasoning led Prince Sultan bin Dipati Tuha Saidullah which evolved into several areas: Sabamban , Pegatan , Koensan , Poelau Laoet , Batoe Litjin , Cangtoeng , Bangkalaan , Sampanahan , Manoenggoel , and Tjingal . Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan is the primary shoreline land, next to the culture maadam, Banjar migrate to the outer islands such as the Sulu Archipelago in fact be one of the five ethnic groups forming Spare Suluk (mixing the Buranun / Dayak Buranun, the Tagimaha, the Baklaya, the Dampuan / Champa and Banjar). The relationship between Banjar the Sulu Archipelago / Banjar Kulan intertwined when a daughter of the King of Banjar marry Buranun tribal authorities. One ethnic group that avoids Suluk colonial Spain and fled to the Sultanate of Banjar is the ancestor of Sheikh Muhammad Al-Banjari Arsyad.
Quite possibly one embraces Islam already exists around the palace which was built in Banjarmasin , but mass pengislaman allegedly occurred after the royal prince who later inducted into the ocean Suriansyah Sultan , followed by citizens of his relatives to Islam, namely bubuhan kings. Behavior king followed the capital's elite, each would find more genuine people, namely Bukit Dayak tribe , who once expected to inhabit the river valleys of the same. Having regard to language development, Bukit Dayak tribe is the origin of the embryo of interest Banjar, which both come from Sumatra or the surrounding areas, but they first settled. Both the Malay community was indeed living next door, but at least at the beginning, in principle do not blend. So, even though the tribe Banjar (Pahuluan) establishing settlements in a place, which may not be too far away from Bukit Dayak tribe hall, but each one is a stand-alone group.
For the sake of security , or because there are ties of kinship, tribe Banjar precursor form separate residential complexes. The complex tribe settlements embryo Banjar (Pahuluan) the first is a residential complex bubuhan , which at first consisted of an authoritative figure as the head, and the citizens of her relatives, and perhaps coupled with family -another family to join him. Models are the same or nearly the same is also available on the community hall in Bukit Dayak society, which in principle is still valid today. Lowland rivers that disgorge mountains Meratus seems territory first settlement Banjar society, and the concentration of the population in this area that much since ancient times, and this area is called Pahuluan. What is presented above illustrate the formation of the (Banjar) Pahuluan, which is of course the possibility of the existence of a Dayak Bukit take shape.
Banjar Batang Banyu
Society (Banjar) formed Banyu Trunk allegedly closely associated with the formation of central authority covering the whole area of Banjar, which probably formed early in the first upstream river State or its subsidiaries namely Tabalong river . For residents who live in the capital is certainly a matter of pride, so it becomes a separate population groups. Region Tabalong riverside residence is a traditional Dayak tribe Maanyan (and Lawangan ), thus allegedly participated many forms subsuku Banyu Batang, in addition to course only people Pahuluan origin who moved there and the migrants who come from outside. When in Pahuluan most people live from farming (subsistence), then many of the Batang Banyu eyed quest as merchants and craftsmen.
When the center of the kingdom moved to Banjarmasin (the establishment of the Sultanate of Banjarmasin ), some residents Trunk Banyu (brought) to move to the new centers of power and together with the population around a pre-existing palace, forming subsuku Banjar. In this area they encounter Ngaju Dayak tribe , who, like the people and the Dayak Dayak Bukit Maanyan or Lawangan , many of them were eventually merged into the Banjar, after they converted to Islam . Those who live around the capital of the empire is actually called or calling themselves the Banjar, while the community and society stems Banyu Pahuluan used to call him as (the origin of) the ancient cities of the leading first. But when they are outside the country Banjar , they invariably claim to be Banjar.
Contrary to the opinion of David Alfani , which states that the core is the Banjar tribe migrants Malays of Sumatra and surrounding areas, the idea was more Idwar Saleh stressed that indigenous Dayak tribes are core Banjar tribe which then mixed to form a political unity as nation Indonesia has with Indonesian him.
So we get a continuation of the fourth kingdom of Daha kingdom in the form of the kingdom of Banjar Islam and tribal berpadunya Ngaju, Maanyan and Hill as the core. This is the Banjarmasih when founded in 1526. In amalgamation (mixed) recently has mixed elements of Malay , Javanese , Ngaju, Maanyan, Hill and other small tribes bound by the religion of Islam , speak Banjar Banjar and customs by the diffusion of the culture in the palace . Here we have no interest Banjar, since there is no ethnic unity, there is a group or a large group is a group of Kuala Banjar, Banjar Trunk group Banyu and Banjar Pahuluan.
The first lived in the area until the local Banjar Kuala Martapura . The second live along the river Tabalong from its mouth in the Barito river to sk . The third stay at the foot of the mountains Meratus from the Cape to Pelaihari . The group comes from the Banjar Kuala Ngaju-ethnic unity, the Banyu Rod from Banjar-ethnic unity Maanyan , the Banjar Pahuluan from Bukit ethnic unity. This is the third point. They consider more civilized and who is not a criterion to Banjar, the group Kaharingan , with ridicule Hamlet , the Biaju , Hill and others.
When ocean prince founded the kingdom of Banjar, he was assisted by the Ngaju, assisted duke-patihnya like Patih Belandean, Patih Billiton, Patih Kuwi etc. and people Bakumpai defeated. Similarly, residents of Daha who lost most of the hill and Maanyan. The group was given a new religion, namely Islam, then take an oath of allegiance to the king, and as a sign of loyalty to wear native language new and leave the old mother tongue. So it's not Banjar ethnic unity but of political unity, such as the Indonesian nation.
In the socio-historical Banjar society is socially heterogeneous groups are configured from various nationalities and races for hundreds of years has forged a life together, so that later formed the ethnic identity (ethnic) Banjar. That is, it is a heterogeneous social group formed through a process that is not completely natural (priomordial), but is also influenced by other factors that are quite complex.
Islam has become the hallmark of Banjar society centuries ago. Islam also has become their identity, which distinguishes it from Dayak groups around it, which generally adheres to religious tribe. Islam is a matter of pride, at least first, so that converts among the Dayak said to be "babarasih" (cleaned up) in addition to the Banjar.
Banjar society is not a present for granted, but it is a social historical construction of a group of people who want a separate community from the community on the island of Borneo. Ethnic Banjar is a form of meeting various ethnic groups that have diverse origins that results from a process of social communities in this area with a point of departure in the Islamization process undertaken by Demak as a condition for the establishment of the Sultanate of Banjar . before the establishment of the Sultanate of Banjar Banjar Islam can not yet be said as a unity of ethnic identity or religion, but rather an identity that refers to a particular territorial area which is home.
Banjar tribe which was originally formed as a political entity divided into 3 groups (large groups) based on territorial and tribal blocks of perspective by describing the cultural and genetic admixture with indigenous migrants Dayak :
- Pahuluan Banjar Group is a mix of Hindu and Malay-Dayak people who speak Meratus Malayic (Dayak element Meratus / Hill as a feature group)
- Rod Banyu Banjar Group is a mix of people Pahuluan, the Melayu-Hindu/Buddha, the Rivet-Gujarat, Maanyan Dayak people, the Dayak Lawangan, the Bukit Dayak and Javanese-Hindu Majapahit (Dayak Maanyan as characteristic element group)
- Kuala Banjar Group is a mixture of the Kuin, the Batang Banyu, the Dayak Ngaju (barnacle, Bakumpai), the Kampung Melayu, the Kampung Bugis-Makassar, the Kampung Jawa, the Arab village, and some Chinese trench to Islam (Ngaju Dayak elements as characteristic of the group). Amalgamation process is still running today in the group who lived in Kuala Banjar Banjar district Kuala - areas in its development into a metropolis that blends (Banjar Bakula).
By taking the opinion Idwar Saleh on core tribal Banjar, Banjar then mixing with the Dayak tribe Ngaju / tribe cognate (Barito Group West) located to the west of Banjarmasin ( Central Kalimantan ) we can assume is the Banjar Kuala too. In the northern South Kalimantan occurred mixing Banjar tribe with tribe Maanyan / cognate tribes (East Barito Group) as Hamlet, Lawangan and Sand tribe in East Kalimantan are also air Lawangan language , we can assume as the Banjar Trunk Banyu. Mixing Banjar tribe in southeastern Borneo that there are many hill tribes we assume Pahuluan Banjar.
According to census 1930, tribe Banjar in South Kalimantan are in the city of Banjarmasin (89.19%), excluding Afdeeling Banjarmasin Banjarmasin (94.05%), Afdeeling Hulu Sungai (93.75%), the city Kotabaru (69.45% ), excluding Sea Island city Kotabaru (48.96%), the Land of Spices (56.74%).