Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Alas Tribe. One Tribe Aceh Southeast

Alas tribe is one of the tribe who settled in the district of Aceh Tenggara , Province of Aceh (also commonly known as the Land Alas). The word "pad" in the language Alas means "mat". It has something to do with the state of the region that stretches flat as a mat on the sidelines of the Bukit Barisan . Alas Land area where many rivers, one of which is Lawe Alas (Alas River).
Alas most of the tribes living in the countryside and living from agriculture and livestock. Alas Land is a granary of rice to Aceh. But apart from that they are also gardening rubber, coffee, and hazelnut, as well as finding various forest products, such as wood, rattan, resin and incense. While they ternakkan animals are horses, goats, buffalo, and cattle.
Alas the kampung or village called kute. One kute usually occupied by one or several clans, called merge. Members of the merge comes from a common ancestor. The pattern of their family life is togetherness and unity. They drew a line of patrilineal descent, meaning that male lineage. They also embrace traditional exogamy merge, meaning that mate to look at another merge.
Spare pads 100% is the religion of Islam . But there are still some that believe such shamanic practices in agriculture. They perform rituals with a certain background belief that they bring good results farms or protected from pests.

Alas Ukhang or khang or Kalak Alas Alas Alas had settled in the valley, long before the Dutch colonial government in Indonesia where the state of the Alas valley has been immortalized in a book authored by a Dutch named Radermacher (1781:8), when viewed from the record history of Islam to the Land Alas, in the year 1325 (Effendy, 1960:26) then obviously the population is already there though still a nomad by embracing animist beliefs.
Alas name intended for an individual or ethnic group, while the area Alas called Tanoh says Alas. According Kreemer (1922:64) says "Alas" is derived from the name of the head ethnicity (grandson of King Lambing), he lived in the oldest village in the village of Batu Tanoh Alas Mbulan.
According to Iwabuchi (1994:10) King who first settled in Tanoh Alas Batumbulan is located in the village known as the symbol of the descent of RAJA RAJA Lotung or known by the grandson of GURU TATAE MONTHS of Samosir Batak, Tatae are siblings of the Month KING SUMBA. Teachers Tatae Months have five children, namely King Uti, Saribu King, Limbong, Sagala, and Glare King. Saribu king is a king Borbor parents and King Lontung. King Lontung mempuyai seven children, namely, Sinaga, Situmorang, Pandiangan, Nainggolan, Simatupang, Arita, and Siregar, known as siampudan or payampulan. Pandiangan an ancestor Pande, Suhut Nihuta, Gultom, Samosir, Harianja, Pakpahan, Sitinjak, Solin in Dairi, Sebayang in Tanah Karo, and Selian in the Land Alas, Keluet in South Aceh.
Lambing is the ancestor of King merga Sebayang in Tanah Karo and Selian in the Land Alas. King Lambing is the youngest child of three brothers namely the eldest brother was King Patuha in Dairi, and number two is King Kluet Hornbill who migrated to South Aceh, the descendants and followers are merga Pinem or Pinim.
Then King Lambing Karo moved to where the descendants and followers are merga Sebayang the territory of Tigabinanga up to Perbesi and Gugung Karo.
Estimated that in the 12th century King Lambing emigrated to the Land of Karo Alas, and settled in the village of Batumbulan, descendants and followers are merga Selian. In the Land Alas King Lambing has three children, King Lelo (Raje catfish) and his descendants are Ngkeran, later King Adeh which is Kertan ancestors and his people, and the third is the offspring Raje Kaye lives in Batumbulan, including Bathin. Lambing Raje descendants in the Land Alas until 2000, has mempuyai descent to 26 who live scattered Alas Land region (Effendy, 1960:36; Sebayang 1986:17).
After the King of Kings, followed Lambing whose wife is the daughter of the King Lambing. Lambing Raja Raja handed over the reins of leadership to the King of Gods (law). Known by the name of Malik Ibrahim, the bearer of Islamic teachings to the Land Alas termashur. Evidence of this historical site is located at Muara Lawe attitude, Batumbulan village. Malik Ibrahim has one son and named ALAS and through 2000 has had a descent to 27 who live in the region of Southeast Aceh, Banda Aceh, Medan, Malaysia and other places.
There are things that attract the attention of an agreement between the son of the King of Lambing (Adeh Raja, Raja Raje Kaye and catfish) to the son of the King of Gods (King Alas) that syi'ar Islam brought by the King of Gods accepted by the entire community Alas, but that belongs customs by King Lambing remain in use with, summarily live contained customary law contained death (Islam) and therefore it is clear that assimilation with the culture of tribal customs Alas been ongoing since hundreds of years ago.
At the beginning of Malik Ibrahim kedatanganya migration through the eastern coast (Pasai) before there is agreement on, he still holds the culture of the Minang Kabau matrealistik, so his son as heir to the kingdom of King Alas follow bloodlines and maternal merga is Selian. After King Alas accept assimilation of King Lambing with the teachings of Islam, since it started settling settling lineage descendants followed the father. Alas King also known as the heir to the kingdom, because of the large estate left by his father and grandfather since then known as Tanoh Alas. Having presence in Batumbulan Selian, appeared again another kingdom in the know with the base Sekedang Bambel territory covers up to Lawe Well. King sekedang according to some information at the beginning in the Land Alas kehadiranya is to find that his parents were migrant DEWA KING Land Alas. King Sekedang which is the first one to come to the Land Alas estimated the mid-13th century and is named Nazarudin known as Datuk HAIR calls coming from Pasai.
Subsequent arrivals during the group Megit Alas Raja Ali of the Aceh coast and offspring developing in Biak Muli known as merga Beruh. Then there was the next migrants who established several clans, but they are still a splitting of Batumbulan, population groups or Batumbulan mempuyai covering Pale Dese merga who live in the northwestern part of the terutung Batumbulan pedi, and then present the Selian, coming Sinaga group, Keruas and Pagan besides rejoin clan Munthe, Pinim and Karo-Karo.
Marga Pale Dese is a resident who first occupied the land Alas, but no empire in recorded history. Then there were also Deski living in the west end of village.
while according to Bernard HM Vlekke "Archipelago: A History of Indonesia" Translated by: Samsudin Berlin (Nusantara: History of Indonesia) Printed by: PT Scholastic, Jakarta, ed 4, 2008.
The Indonesian archipelago is located in the main sea route between the eastern and southern Asia. In between these regions, the bias itself is expected there will be a population with diverse origins. The discovery anthropological add much complexity to the study of the problem of human origins in the island cluster. In 1890 Dr. Eugene Dubolis find the remains of a skeleton that appears when it can not be classified as an ape or human. Scientific discussions regarding the remains "Pithecanthopus erectus" (the name suggested Dubois) resulted in a conclusion that is not certain. For a long time, few new discoveries explanation for this difficult problem. But 40 years later, the picture suddenly changed. Between 1931 and 1941, anthropologist Oppenoorth and Von Koenigswald discovered fossil remains of some ancient human species originating from the early or mid-Pleistocene Kala. All of these findings happening around Surakarta in Java Tenggah. The discovery turned out to be very important for anthropology and biology in general. But it does not mean for the history of Indonesia. The ancient people of Indonesia are descendants of immigrants from Asia. Between the time of the arrival of immigrants Pithecanthpopus and all the time there may be thousands of centuries.
There are several theories regarding the development of ethnological Indonesia. The situation is very complex linguistic and ethnic groups. Some of the hundreds of languages ​​ditutut in the Indonesian archipelago, and often some of the language used in a small island. Residents of the small area can consist of phenotypes are very different. No one island, betapun small, whose inhabitants do not mix-up, and in all the major islands (except Java) we find primitive tribes living alongside people with a high degree of civilization. One of the most striking aspects of this problem is that in every big island there is a big difference between the coastal and inland areas. P. and F. Sarasin brothers, the famous explorer interior of Sulawesi, scientists-scientists are the first to formulate a plausible theory of civilization among the tribes of the interior with the coast. This theory was then developed further by other anthropology-anthropology. Sarasins theory is that the native population of the islands of Indonesia is the phenotype bkulit dark and small body, and that this group originally inhabited the entire southeastern Asia. At that time the area was one solid land. Of course, the ice from the period glasia never covered islands of the East Indies, but at the end of the last glacial period the sea level rose so high that the South China Sea and Java Sea are formed and separating the volcanic mountains of Indonesia from the mainland. In vain the natives were considered separately still live in rural areas, while coastal areas inhabited by the newly formed newcomers. Sarasins called descendants of the original Vedda people , according to the name of one of the most famous in this group, the Hieng in Cambodia, Miao-tse and Yao-jen in China, as well as Senoi in the Malayan peninsula. In the Indonesian archipelago are people who live in the forests of Sumatra (Kubu, Lubu, and Mamak) and Toala in Sulawesi. Research in the future allow further decomposition of the threads that make up the intricate patterns of anthropological Indonesia. Collection of anthropological and archaeological evidence seems to suggest that the Indonesian archipelago oldest population closely related to the ancestors of present-day Melanesians and that "Vedda" mentioned Sarasin included what was then called " race Negrito "which although rare, still exist across Africa, South Asia, and Oceania. So Vedda is "immigration" into the world's first island was uninhabited and still be distinguished from their predecessors thanks to the model of stone tools they left behind. Both populations were said to live on stage Mesolitik .
Shortly after the arrival of the Negrito, a new population coming to Indonesia. Their culture type of Neolithic and early settlements that resemble those of ancient Chinese pottery. Today is also the beginning of the group is shy and rarely seen, except those in the interior of the place visited is still wild. They had no choice but to merge or disappear.
Sarasins newcomer called it consists of two waves, Proto Malays and Deutero Malays. Since their arrival in two waves of migration, the grace period separately estimated by more than 2,000 years. Proto Malays monyang grandmother believed was possible from all the people who are now considered entry Malayo Polynesian spread from Madagascar to the easternmost islands in the Pacific, they are expected to migrate to the Indonesian islands of southern China. In China place their original stay in the region is estimated to be roughly included in Yunnan province today. From there they migrated to Indonesia and Siam, and then to the islands of Indonesia. Their arrival seemed to coincide with the appearance of the first neolithic tools in Indonesia and thus can be set at around 3,000 BC. According to the theory Sarasin, a descendant of Proto Malays in turn pushed inland by the arrival of new immigrants, Deutero Malays, who was also from northern Indochina and surrounding area. Deutero Malays identified with the person who introduced iron tools and weapons into the world of the Indonesian archipelago. The study of the development of civilization in Indochina seemed to indicate a date for the event: immigration took place between 300 and 200 BC. Naturally Proto Malays and Deutero Malays mingle freely, which explains the difficulty of distinguishing between the two groups in the Indonesia. Proto Malays are considered include Alas and Gayo in northern Sumatra and Sulawesi Toraja. Almost everyone else in Indonesia, except the people of Papua and the islands around it, included in class Deutero Malays.


According to the book (Sanctions and Penalties Crime Indigenous Alas, Dr Talib Akbar MSC 2004) as for the Alas ethnic clans namely: Bangko, Deski, Rivet, Kepale Dese, Keruas, Pagan, and then present another clan Selian Acih, Beruh, Gale, Kekaro, Mahe, Menalu, Mencawan, Munthe, Pase, Pelis, Pinim, Ramin, Ramud, Sambo, Sekedang, Sugihen, Sepayung, Sebayang and Terigan clan.
Death Ceremony Procession Alas Indigenous Tribes
Dalam pelaksanaan upacara kematian adat yang merupakan salah satu ritual siklus hidup yang berlaku di kalangan masyarakat Suku Alas di Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, terdapat tata cara dan tahapan-tahapan tertentu. In the implementation of traditional funeral ceremony is one of life cycle rituals prevailing in the public interest in Aceh Alas, there are ordinances and certain stages. Beberapa tahapan dalam upacara kematian adat Suku Alas itu adalah sebagai berikut: Several stages in the customary funeral rites tribe Alas it is as follows: 

Future body at Home (Preparation)
When there is one member of a deceased citizen Tribes Alas, the sad news is immediately notified to the village chief who then announced to all citizens. Residents of the community will come to the funeral home to help the funeral procession, from the preparation stage to the completion of the ceremony. The course of traditional funeral ceremony led by Tengku priest assisted by the village chief.
There is a special tradition in the ceremony kematin Alas tribe indigenous peoples in Southeast Aceh. When there are people who died, obituary notices must be delivered immediately, especially to relatives or relatives of those who died, particularly to the families of the closest, the two armed forces up and down the two who died. In addition, the relatives should be informed specifically of one of the deceased family member or a person who is sent. If this is not done soon it could potentially cause a rift in kinship.
Preparation needs to be prepared by a funeral procession to the family, like a shroud, boards and tools to make keurreunda or casket (coffin), herb badar to pour water or rubbed into the body so that the body does not emit odor after bathing. Badar water concoction is a traditional herb that consists of a mixture of lime water, mengkur, turmeric, and rice has been mashed. All purposes funerals were prepared simultaneously to completion so that the same also did not encounter any problems when the funeral procession made. 

Procession of Bathing body
After all the preparations for the implementation of the customary funeral rites have been completed and all the people who waited to attend the procession was present, then the chiefs will preach to families mourning the ceremony was ready to begin. The next event is the ceremonial bathing the corpse which the interest Alas tradition is usually done in the river. Kebiasaan This custom is linked to the natural conditions in the country that has a lot of Alas river so the river became one of the main source of life for the tribe Alas.
The procession was led by Tengku bathing the corpse priests assisted by the family grief. After all devices are ready, the body is removed and placed in a stretcher which was decorated with a variety of beautiful multicolored fabric. Before the corpse was carried out of the house, relatives and friends who died doing the ritual mengkiran or pierced, which runs through the bottom of the stretcher. After the procession mengkiran completed, the next stretchers carrying the bodies paraded toward the river. Along the way, stretchers covered with an umbrella to avoid the hot sun.
Arriving at the river, stretcher lowered into the water to be very careful. The selected part of the river is usually a place where the water is not too deep or shallow, approximately 30 cm deep, so that when the body can be about water. Before the body is derived from the stretcher, the families who helped bathe the corpse sit lined up in the water. Tengku priest instruct the ways to bathe the corpse. Then, the priest's body body scrub with water full moon. Once considered clean everything, then Tengku nine priests sprinkled water over the body remains. Water is a water purifier last nine. Named nine water because the water is poured over 9 times and thus the body is considered clean.
After the whole body remains clean, then raised to the top of the bank and put to sleep on mats that had been prepared. Then, Tengku priest took the shroud to start wrapping the corpse procession. Once completed, the event continued with a prayer corpse. Prayer can be done on the body by the river at that time, but it can also be done at the nearest mosque.

After prayer, remains ready to depart towards the last funeral. However, previously done ngeratap ritual, the relatives and family members mourn those who died with various kinds of speech to remember as long as life. Ritual ngeratap estimated to come from cultures other Batak Karo and society. From this reason, as well as a variety of other reasons, the tribe Alas allegedly has the same lineage with the Batak people, especially the Batak Karo. In its development, given the teachings of Islam prohibit practices mourn those who have died, then the ritual began ngeratap not run anymore.
After all this procession started and completed, the next step is to bring the body to the burial site for rumored. Usungan Bier again appointed to be taken to the cemetery. Stretcher-bier was in the front row and is protected with an umbrella being exposed to hot sun. 

Burial Procession body
In the tomb area, some people assigned to prepare the site to be used for the funeral. Soil was excavated a hole to bury the bodies later. As the group arrives at the carrier's body burial, the bodies removed from the coffin, and then carefully inserted into the grave. Once the body is inserted into the hole earth, straps located on the head of the corpse was opened with the intention that the body was not cooped up in a shroud. After that, the hole where the body was put back filled with earth dug earlier. Procession hoard grave with soil should be done in a way that very carefully.

After the stockpiled soil, Tengku imam as leader's funeral, took two geloah rod (rod spacing) and then grown on top of the heap tomb, precisely in the part where the head and foot of the bodies are. The purpose of planting geloah stem is a sign that the place had been used to bury a person, as well as a replacement headstone for a while. In the tradition of the Malay archipelago, and generally does not use the tombstone of stone or wood, when the grave was new.
After the raising of the rod geloah, Tengku priest took the water that is provided and then poured on top of the grave. After that, Tengku priest sitting near geloah rod that is attached at the top (head body) to read talkin and closing prayer. The reading was followed by a prayer of the whole assembly is in place.
After talkin finished reading and prayer, one representative of the deceased or the family of the deceased expressed his gratitude to all those who attended and helped funeral procession to the cemetery until finished. In a thank you is also extended to all the relatives and all citizens to come to the funeral home for three nights, from the first night until the third night. After penyampaikan thank you from the family representative is complete, the funeral was held in cash, and everyone is welcome to return to their homes. 

Period of condolence
In the tradition of the Malay community, including those by members of the community interest in Aceh southeastern Alas, the procession of condolence always done as a series of funeral ceremonies were performed by custom. Condolence ceremony performed as a warning for those who are still alive so always faithful and devoted to God Almighty for the rest of his life. In addition, the condolence ritual is also done so that the spirits of the dead got a good spot on the side of God and all his deeds earn rewards in kind.
Ritual condolence in the tradition of public interest Alas conducted over three consecutive days, the first night, the second night and the third night after the funeral. Participants condolence usually consists of community members, relatives, family and friends who are grieving. Sympathy began after Maghrib time, but since the afternoon or evening, the women had come first to the funeral home by bringing cakes and food that will be served after the ceremony condolence later.

The event was led by Tengku condolence priest who started the procession with the reading of Al-Fatihah and ended with the reading of prayers. The duration of the execution time depends on the length of the procession sympathy or condolence short readings led by Tengku priest. After reading condolence finished, served food and drinks to the guests spurious. After the food and drinks ready to serve all participants, a relative stands and short speech that essentially invited the attendees to sample. If the event has finished eating and drinking, so the audience was led Tengku priest himself asking the host to return to their homes. Thus condolence event like this held until the third day. 

Seventh-day period
Rituals are performed on the seventh day after the funeral ceremony became larger than before the ceremony. For families who can afford, usually cut buffalo or cow for the purposes of this event. As for those who are not able to be carried out simply enough, but still larger than the previous ceremony.
Before arriving on the seventh day, the family would make funeral invitations made from betel leaf. Invitations are seeking public interest Alas characteristic is called pemanggo 7. The invitation then submitted to the relatives and the people who will be invited to the ceremony the seventh night. Submission of betel invitation made by one of the relatives who are usually women who helped a man.
Mourning relatives who accept the invitation will prepare the items that will be given to the family of the deceased. Some types of luggage, among others: lemonade, kerotuum (rice wrapped in banana leaves elliptic), a stacking side dishes (basket), coconut, duck eggs, rice, and money. At the moment there are inherent surrender customary speech to the effect that the host is willing to accept the inherent spurious. The host responded with the customary speech basically saying gratitude.

The ceremony begins seventh day after Maghrib prayer. Tengku priest opened the event by reading samadiah followed by reading a prayer. The next event is the determination of the heirs of the late / deceased or known by the name of the event berbadas. If  late / deceased left the boys are older, berbadas not necessary. Berbadas done if the heirs were left unsettled by custom or religion. Berbadas led by Tengku priest assisted by the village headman (village head) because they are the ones who considered the notion of religious rules and customs of the legal heirs. 

Planting Period Stone
The plant is naming rocks for placement procession grave headstones in the land. The purpose of the use of the tombstone is a sign that the tomb had always remembered and cared for by their families and society in general. For citizens Spare Alas, planting tombstones day after the seventh day of the ceremony. As a complement to the stone planting ceremony is a yellow sticky rice to eat and water mixed together with lime slices to sprinkle on the ground tomb. Tombstone planting ceremony conducted in the morning and still led by Tengku priest. The ceremony begins with the tomb watering with water that has been provided and performed by the priest. Watering is done three times from the top of the tomb (head) to the bottom (foot) and read prayers.

Furthermore, the upper part of the stone has been wrapped in a white cloth and placed in a container called a salver, taken by Tengku priest, then planted on his tomb on the head. Stone plugged roughly half the positions are covered with stones on top. After that, Tengku priest continued planting tomb stone on the bottom (feet). Both stones are planted not far away with a tree that had been planted earlier geloah at a funeral. After the procession finished planting stones, Tengku priest crouched beside the grave to read the prayers and followed by the audience.
praying, the event continued with a meal with yellow glutinous rice that has been provided. Once everything is finished, the ceremony was already finished planting stone implemented. Thus, a series of traditional funerals Alas Tribal communities have been implemented.


The art of ethnic Alas (Alas and Gayo Indigenous Council, 2003):
1. dance Mesekat
2. Pelabat
3. Alun Landok
4. Alas Tribal Vocal
5. Canang Situ
6. Canang Reed
7. Genggong
8. Oloi-olio
9. Keketuk layakh


The traditional crafts of ethnic pedestal like:
1. Nemet (mengayam palm leaf)
2. Mbayu Amak (mats)
3. Custom embroidered clothing
4. Blacksmith (knife bekhemu)

Traditional Food

The traditional food of the tribal base is:
1. Manuk labakh
2. Fish labakh
3. Puket Megaukh
4. Lepat bekhas
5. Gelame
6. Puket Megaluh
7. Fruit Khum-Khum
8. Fish pacik Kule
9. Teukh Bath
10. Puket mekuah
11. Tumpi
12. godekhr
13. Puket sekuning
14. cimpe
15. getuk

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