Aceh who first called Aceh Darussalam ( 1511 - 1959 ) once referred to hereinafter as the Special Region ( 1959 - 2001 ) and Aceh ( 2001 - 2009 ) and became the province of Aceh( 2009 - present ) is a province of the western Indonesia . Aceh has set up its own autonomy, in contrast to most other provinces in Indonesia, for reasons of history . The area is bordered by the Bay of Bengal to the north, the Indian Ocean to the west, the Strait of Malacca in the east, and North Sumatra in southeast and south.
Aceh is the capital of Banda Aceh . Ports is Malahayati-Krueng Ulee Lheue, Sabang , Lhokseumawe and Langsa . Aceh was the region worst hit by the earthquake and tsunami December 26, 2004 . Some places on the coast completely destroyed. The hardest was Banda Aceh , Aceh Besar , AcehJaya , West Aceh , Singkil and Simeulue .
Aceh has a wealth of natural resources such as petroleum and natural gas . Natural resources it is located in North Aceh and East Aceh . Aceh is also famous for its forest resources, which lies along the line of the Bukit Barisan , from Kutacane , Southeast Aceh , Seulawah , Aceh Besar , until Ulu Masen in Aceh Jaya . A national park, the Gunung Leuser National Park (TNGL) are also found in Southeast Aceh .
Aceh Darussalam at the time of reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda Meukuta Perkasa Alam (Sulthan Aceh to 19) , is a country that is very rich and prosperous. According to a researcher for the origin of the French who arrived in Aceh in the heyday of the era, the power reaching the west coast of Aceh Minangkabau to Perak . Sultanate of Aceh have established relationships with the kingdoms of the Western world in the 16th century , including the British , Ottoman , and the Netherlands .
Sultanate involved a protracted power struggle since the beginning of the 16th century, first by the Portuguese , and since the 18th century by the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands . At the end of the 18th century, Aceh was forced to give up territory in Kedah and Penang in the Malay Peninsula to the United Kingdom.
In 1824 , the Anglo-Dutch Agreement was signed, in which Britain handed over its territory on Sumatra to the Dutch. The British claim that Aceh was their colony, although this is not true. In 1871, Britain allowed the Dutch to colonize Aceh, possibly to prevent France from gaining power in the region.
Sultanate of Aceh
A continuation of the Sultanate of Aceh Sultanate Pasai Ocean destroyed in the 14th century . Sultanate of Aceh is located in the north of the island of Sumatra to the capital Kutaraja ( Banda Aceh ). In the long history ( 1496 - 1903 ), Aceh has carved his past so grand and amazing, especially because of its ability to develop a pattern and system of military education, its commitment against European imperialism, a system of regular and systematic government, realizing the center- science assessment center, to the ability to establish diplomatic relations with other countries.
War in Aceh
Aceh War began in the Netherlands declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873 , starting from the arrival of General JHR Kohler 3198 as the number of troops, including 168 officers KNIL.
After doing some diplomatic threats, but did not win a large area. War broke out again in 1883 , but again failed, and in 1892 and 1893 , the Dutch believed that they had failed to seize Aceh. In fact, on the first day of the war, one unit of the Dutch warship, Citadel van Antwerpen had experienced 12 fire cannons from Aceh forces  .
Dr . Christiaan Snouck , an expert who pretended to convert to Islam from Leiden University have managed to get the confidence of many Aceh leaders, and provide advice to the Dutch that their attacks are directed to the clergy , not to the sultan. This suggestion was successful. In 1898 , Joannes Benedictus van Heutsz declared the governor of Aceh, and with his lieutenant, Hendrikus Colijn , captured much of Aceh.
Sultan M. David finally give ourselves to the Netherlands in 1903 after two of his wife, children and his mother were arrested by the Dutch advance. Sultanate eventually dropped in 1904 . At that time, the capital of Aceh has fully seized the Netherlands. But the resistance is still being conducted by the commander -chief in the interior and by the AcehUlema until japan in and replace the role of the Dutch. Aceh War was a war of the most detrimental to the Dutch colonial history archipelago .
Meanwhile, during the reign of the Netherlands, the Acehnese began a partnership with other regions in Indonesia and was involved in various nationalist movements and politics. Aceh were increasingly involved in the nationalist movement in Indonesia. When Volksraad (parliament) was formed, Teuku Nyak Arif was elected as the first representative of the Acehnese. (Nyak Arif then sworn in as governor by the governor of Aceh Sumatra first, Mr. Teuku Muhammad Hasan ).
When Japan began to wage a war to expel European colonialists from Asia, figures Acehnese fighters sent into Japan's wartime leader to help businesses drive the Dutch from Aceh. Negotiations began in 1940. After several aborted landing plan, finally, on February 9, 1942 Japanese forces landed in Batee Ujong, Aceh Besar. Their arrival was greeted by the leaders of Acehfighters and the general public. The entry of Japan into Aceh, the Dutch were expelled permanently from Aceh.
Initially Japan be kind and respectful to the people and leaders of Aceh, and respect the beliefs and customs that having Islamic Aceh. People did not hesitate to help and participate in the development programs of Japan. But when the situation is improving, harassment of the people of Aceh, especially women conducted by personnel from the Japanese army. Muslim Acehnese began instructed to bend toward the sun rises in the morning, a behavior that is contrary to the Islamic faith. Hence came the Acehnese resistance against Japan in all areas of Aceh. The most famous example is the resistance led by Tengku Abdul Jalil, a scholar from the Bayu, near Lhokseumawe .
The province has 13 tribes, namely Aceh, Gayo, Aneuk Jamee, Singkil, Alas, Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Pakpak, Haloban, Lekon and Nias. The results of the population census in 2000 showed the following results: Aceh (50.32%), Java (15.87%), Gayo (11.46%), Alas (3.89%), Singkil (2.55%), Simeulue (2.47%), Batak (2.26%), Minangkabau (1.09%), others (10.09%).