Batak is one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia . This name is a collective theme to identify some tribes who live and come from Tapanuli and East Sumatra , in North Sumatra . Ethnic Batak are categorized as: Batak Toba , Karo Batak , Batak Pakpak , Simalungun Batak , Batak Angkola , and Batak Mandailing .
Nowadays most people embrace Batak religion of Sunni Islam and Protestant Christianity . But some are embracing the belief tadisional: tradition Malim and also adhere to the belief of animism (called Sipelebegu or Parbegu), although now the number of the adherents of these teachings waned.
Batak people are speakers of Austronesian languages , but it is unknown when the Batak ancestors first settled in Tapanuli and East Sumatra. Language and archaeological evidence suggests that the Austronesian-speaking people of Taiwan have moved to the area the Philippines and Indonesia about 2,500 years ago, the young in the stone age ( Neolithic ). Because until now there has been no artifacts Neolithic (Stone Age Younger) were found in the Batak it can be presumed that the new Batak ancestors migrated to North Sumatra in the age of metal. In the 6th century, the merchants of Tamil origin India set up a trading town Barus , on the west coast of North Sumatra. They trade Barus chalk cultivated by farmers in the interior. Kapur Barus of Batak lands of high quality so that it becomes one of the leading export in addition to incense. In the 10th century, Barus attacked by Sriwijaya . This led to the expulsion of Tamil traders from the coast of Sumatra. In subsequent periods, Barus chalk trading began much controlled by the Minangkabau traders who established a colony on the west coast and east of North Sumatra. Their colonies stretching from Barus, Sorkam , up Christmas. Batak is one of the ethnic groups in Indonesia. This name is a collective theme to identify some tribes who live and come from Tapanuli and East Sumatra, North Sumatra. Ethnic groups are categorized as Batak: Toba Batak, Batak Karo Batak Pakpak, Simalungun Batak, Batak Angkola, and Batak Mandailing.
The majority of the Batak be Christians and the rest Muslims. But there is also a religion Malim and also embracing animist beliefs (called Sipelebegu or Parbegu), although now the number of the adherents of these teachings waned.
RW Liddle said that prior to the 20th century in northern Sumatra there are no ethnic group as a coherent social unit. According to the 19th century, the social interaction in the area is limited to the relationship between individuals, between groups of kin, or between villages. And almost no consciousness to be part of the social units and greater political. Another opinion suggests that the emergence of an awareness of a Batak family just happened in colonial times. In his dissertation J. Pardede argued that the term "Batak Land" and "people of Batak" was created by outsiders. Instead, Siti Omas Manurung , the wife of the son of Toba Batak priest said that before the arrival of the Dutch, all good people Karo and Simalungun recognize him as Batak, and Belandalah which has made the separation of the groups. A myth that has various versions state that Pusuk Buhit , one of the peaks in the west of Lake Toba , was the "birthplace" Batak people. Besides these myths also state that the Batak ancestors came from Samosir .
The formation of Batak society composed of various clans, partly due to the migration of families from other parts of Sumatra. Important research conducted by Karo tradition JH Neumann , based on transcriptions of oral literature and two local script, which Kembaren Library and Library Ginting . According Kembaren Library, the origin of the clan Kembaren Pagaruyung in Minangkabau. Tamil people are also expected to be blocks of Karo society. This is evident from the number of Karo surnames derived from Tamil language . Tamil people are a trader on the west coast, fled inland Minangkabau of Sumatra in the attack, troops coming in the 14th century to master Barus.
The spread of religion
The districts in North Sumatra, colored, has a majority population of Batak.
The entry of Islam
During his visit in 1292, Marco Polo reported that the Batak people as those "wild" and are never affected by religions outside. Although Ibn Battuta , visited North Sumatra in 1345 and Islamize Sultan Al-Malik Al-Dhahir , Batak people have never known before Islam spread by the Minangkabau traders. Along with the business trading, many traders who do marry Minangkabau-mawin Batak women. It has gradually Increasing Muslims in Batak society. In the Padri War at the beginning of the 19th century, the land forces attacked the Batak and Minangkabau do pengislaman massively over the Mandailing and Angkola. But Padri attack on Toba region, not to Islamize society, which they eventually embraced Protestant Christianity . the kingdom of Aceh in the north, also did much to Islamize society and Pakpak Karo. While Simalungun many of the people affected by the Malay Muslims in East Sumatra coast
See also: History of the entry of Christianity to the Batak
In 1824, two Baptist missionaries native England , Richard Burton and Nathaniel Ward walk from Sibolga Batak headed inland. After three days of walking, they reached the plateau Silindung and settle for two weeks in the interior. From this exploration, they make observations and direct observation of Batak society. In 1834, this activity was followed by Henry Lyman and Samuel Munson from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions.
In 1850, the Board of the Dutch missionaries commissioned Neubronner Herman van der Tuuk to publish grammar books and dictionaries Batak language - Dutch. It aims to facilitate the Christian missions Dutch and German speaking with the Toba and Simalungun pengkristenan targeted them.
The first missionaries of origin Germany arrived in the valley around Lake Toba in 1861, and a mission pengkristenan run in 1881 by Dr. Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen . New Testament for the first time translated into Toba Batak language by Nommensen in 1869 and completed the translation of the Old Testament by PH Johannsen in 1891. Text translation was printed in Latin letters in Medan in 1893. According HO Voorma , this translation is not easy to read, a bit stiff, and sounded strange in Batak language.
Toba and Karo communities partly absorb Christianity quickly, and at the beginning of the 20th century has made Christianity the cultural identity. During a period of the rise of colonialism the Dutch East Indies , where many of the Batak are no longer fought with the colonial administration. Guerrilla resistance by Toba Batak people ended in 1907, after their charismatic leader, Sisingamangaraja XII died.
Church Protestant Batak Christians (HKBP) has been established in Balige in September 1917. In the late 1920's, a school nurse provides care training to midwives there. Later in 1941, Karo Batak Protestant Church (GBKP) was established.
A Batak calendar made of bone, from the 20th century. Owned by Children's Museum of Indianapolis.
Before the Batak Toba embraced Protestant Christianity , they have a belief system and religion of Mulajadi Nabolon who have power over the sky and the radiance of His power manifested in Debata Natolu .
Concerning the soul and the spirit, the Batak Toba identify three concepts, namely:
- Tondi: is the soul or spirit of a person who is a force, therefore Tondi gives life to man. Tondi in the can since someone in the kandungan.Bila Tondi left the body a person, then that person will get sick or die, then held a ceremony mangalap (pick) sombaon Tondi from the captors.
- Sahala: is the soul or spirit of one's own power. Everybody has Tondi, but not everyone has Sahala. Sahala with Sumanta, luck or magic that of the king or the hula-hula.
- Begu: is Tondi people have died, the same behavior with human behavior, just turn up on the night.
Thus religion and beliefs contained in the Batak tribe pustaha. Although it has embraced Christianity and educated, but the Batak do not want to leave religion and beliefs that have been ingrained in their consciousness.
Greetings Typical Batak
Each tribe has Batak greeting each signature. Although the Batak tribe famous for greeting Horasnya, but there are still two more greetings less popular in the community and Njuah Mejuah Juah Juah. Horas itself still has a reference to each tribe by the use
1. Pakpak "Njuah-Mo Juah Banta Karina!"
2. Karo "Mejuah-Juah We Krina!"
3. Toba "Horas Jala Ma On Hita Saluhutna Gabe!"
4. Simalungun "Horas banta Haganupan, Salam Habonaran Do Bona!"
5. Mandailing and Angkola "Horas Tondi G Tondi Matogu Madingin Pears, Vegetables Matua Bulung!"
Kinship is related to the legal relationship between people in social life. There are two forms of kinship to the Batak tribe, which is based on lineage (genealogy) and based on sociological, while no territorial kinship.
Forms of kinship based on lineage (genealogy) is visible from genealogy surname ranging from Si Raja Batak , Batak tribes which all have a clan . While kinship based on sociological occur through agreement (match between a particular clan) or by marriage. In Batak traditions, the unity is the bond of blood in Indigenous clans, and clan. This means for example Harahap, unity is customary Marga Marga Harahap vs another. Given that Indigenous Batak / Batak traditions are dynamic which is often tailored to the time and place influence the differences between the traditional style of the area.
The existence of philosophy in the parable of the Toba Batak language that reads: Jonok dongan partubu jonokan do dongan parhundul. is a philosophy that we always maintain good relations with its neighbors, because they're the closest friends. However, in the implementation of custom, the first look is a one clan, although basically neighbors should not be overlooked in the implementation of Indigenous Peoples.
Philosophy and the social system
Batak people have a philosophy, the principle as well as in terms of social structures and systems that are in the Toba Batak language called Dalihan na Tolu . Here mention Dalihan Natolu by six Batak tribe
1. Dalihan Tolu (Toba) • Somba Marhula hula-Manat Mardongan • Body • Elek Marboru
2. Dalian Na Tolu (Mandailing and Angkola) • Respect Marmora • • Elek Maranak Markahanggi Manat Boru
3. Tolu Sahundulan (Simalungun) • Martondong Ningon Sincerely, Sombah • Marsanina Ningon Pakkei, Manat • Marboru Ningon Elek, Pakkei
4. Rakut sitelu (Karo) • Nembah Man Man Mehamat Sembuyak Kalimbubu • • Nami-nami Man Child Beru
5. Daliken sitelu (Pakpak) • Worship Merkula Manat Merdengan-kula • Body • Elek Marberru
- Hulahula / Mora is the family of the wife. Hula's most respected positions in the association and customs Batak (all sub-tribe of Batak) so everyone should respect the Batak dipesankan Hulahula (Somba marhula-hula).
- Dongan Tubu / Hahanggi called Dongan Sabutuha is the brother of one clan. Its literal meaning is born from the same stomach. They are like trees that are close together, support each other, so close though because sometimes mutual friction. However, the conflict did not make the connection of the clan can be separated. Rather like water that cut with a knife, although the split but remain united. However, to everyone Batak (Batak culture) dipesankan be wise to you semarga. Termed, tubu mardongan manat.
- Boru / Child Boru is the family that takes the wife of a clan (other families). Boru occupies the lowest position as 'parhobas' or servant, whether in daily life or (especially) in any ceremonies. But while working as a waitress is not meant to be treated with impunity. Rather boru party should take heart, persuaded, termed: Elek marboru.
But that does not mean there is caste in Batak kinship system. Dalihan kinship systems na Tolu is contextual. According to the context, all the Batak people definitely been a Hulahula, as well as the Dongan Tubu, as well as Boru. So everyone had to put in a contextual position.
Thus, in order of kinship, everyone should behave Batak 'king'. Raja Batak kinship in the order does not mean the people in power, but the people who behaved in accordance with good manners in Batak kinship system. So in any conversation is always custom called ni Hulahula King, King and King no Dongan Tubu ni Boru.
Ritual cannibalism has been well documented among Batak, which aims to strengthen Tondi eating it. In particular, blood, heart, palms, and soles of the feet are considered as rich Tondi.
In a memoir Marco Polo who had come east Sumatra dipesisir expedition from April to September 1292, he mentioned that he met with people who will tell the inland masyarakyat referred to as "man-eaters". From the secondary sources, Marco Polo record the stories of ritual cannibalism among the "Battas". Although Marco Polo only live in coastal areas, and never go directly into the interior to verify the story, but he can tell you the ritual.
Niccolò Da Conti (1395-1469), a Venetian who spent most of 1421 in Sumatra, long journey for trade missions in Southeast Asia (1414-1439), chronicles the life of the community. He wrote a brief description of the Batak: "In this part of the island, called cannibals living Batech fight constantly to their neighbors'.
Thomas Stamford Raffles in 1820 studying the Batak and their rituals, and laws regarding the consumption of human flesh, writing in detail about the infringement is justified. Raffles stated that: "One thing that is common where people eat their parents when too old to work, and for certain crimes a criminal would be eaten alive ".. "The flesh eaten raw or roasted, with lime, salt and a bit of rice".
The German physician and geographer Franz Wilhelm Junghuhn, visited the Batak lands in 1840-1841. Junghuhn say about ritual cannibalism among the Batak (which he called "Battaer"). Junghuhn told how dangerous and hungry after the flight, he arrived at a friendly village. The food offered by his host is the meat of the two prisoners who had been killed the day before.  However, this can sometimes be exaggerated in order to scare people / parties intend to colonize and / or occasionally in order to get a better paid job as a handyman shoulder for merchants as well as mercenaries for the coastal tribes were plagued by pirates.
Oscar von Kessel visited Silindung in the 1840s, and in 1844 probably the first Europeans to observe Batak ritual cannibalism in which a convicted adulteress and eaten alive. Interestingly, there is a parallel description of Marsden for some important, von Kessel states that cannibalism is regarded by the Batak people as an act of law, and its application is restricted to a very narrow violation of the theft, adultery, espionage, or treason. Salt, red pepper, and lemon should be given by the victim's family as a sign that they accept the decision of the people and not think about revenge.
Ida Pfeiffer visited the Batak in August 1852, and although he did not observe any cannibalism, he was told that: "Prisoners of war was tied to a tree and beheaded at once, but the blood is carefully preserved for a drink, and sometimes made into a sort of pudding with rice. bodies are then distributed; ear, nose, and feet are the exclusive property of the king, in addition to a claim for some others. palms of the hands, feet, head meat, heart, and liver, is a typical dish. meat usually roasted and eaten with salt. The women were not allowed to take part in a great public dinner ".
In 1890, the Dutch colonial government banned cannibalism in the area of their control. Rumors of Batak cannibalism survived until the beginning of the 20th century, and it seems likely that the custom has been rarely performed since 1816. This is due to the influence of religion in society Batak migrants.
Lineage or Tarombo is something that is very important for the Batak. For those who do not know the lineage will be considered as stray Batak (nalilu). Batak people are required to know at least the lineage ancestors lowered his clan and friends semarganya (dongan tubu). It is necessary to know the location kekerabatannya (partuturanna) in a clan or a clan
Some people Karo , Angkola , and Mandailing not call themselves as part of the Batak tribe. The discourse that emerged due to the general category of "Batak" looked down upon by other nations. In addition, religious differences also cause some people do not want to be called as Tapanuli Batak. On the northeast coast of Sumatra, particularly in the city of Medan , this split is very pronounced. Especially in the selection of political leaders and the seizure of economic resources. Another source states Batak word is derived from the plan the Governor General Raffles made ethnic Christians who are between the Sultanate and the Kingdom of the Islamic Minangkabau, Barus Inland region, called Batak. Generalization said the ethnic Batak Mandailing (Angkola) and Karo, generally can not be accepted by the descendants of the original area. Similarly, in Angkola, that there are many Muslim refugees from the area around Lake Toba and Samosir, due to the implementation of manufacturing Afdeeling Bataklanden by the Dutch government, which banned the Muslim population living in the region.
The greatest conflict is conflict between the northern part of the southern Tapanuli Tapanuli, Batak and Mandailing identity. The northern part of the identity of Batak demand for the majority of the population Tapanuli, even in the outer regions. While the southern part of the identity of Batak refused, relying on the elements of the culture and resources of the West. Rejection Mandailing community who do not want to be called as part of the ethnic Batak, had surfaced in the case of Syarikat Tapanuli (1919-1922), Dead River Cemetery Case (1922), and the establishment of Provincial Tapanuli Cases (2008-2009). In the census of 1930 and 2000, the government classifies Simalungun, Karo, Toba, Mandailing, Pakpak and Angkola as ethnic Batak.